Spring semester 2016/2017 | University of Tartu
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Contacts of UT units

Faculty of Arts and Humanities
Faculty phone: 
(+372) 737 5341
Faculty address: 
Jakobi 2 - 116-121, 51014, Tartu
  • Institute of History and Archaeology
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5651
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51003, Tartu
  • Institute of Estonian and General Linguistics
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5221
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51014, Tartu
  • Institute of Philosophy and Semiotics
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5314
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, III, rooms 309-352, 51014, Tartu
  • Institute of Cultural Research and Arts
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5223
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 16, 51003, Tartu
  • School of Theology and Religious Studies
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5301
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18-310, 50090, Tartu
  • College of Foreign Languages and Cultures
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, 51003, Tartu
  • Viljandi Culture Academy
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 435 5232
    Faculty address: 
    Posti 1, 71004, Viljandi
Faculty of Social Sciences
Faculty phone: 
(+372) 737 5957
Faculty address: 
Lossi 36, 51003, Tartu
  • Institute of Education
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6440
    Faculty address: 
    Salme 1a, room 29, 50103, Tartu
  • Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies
  • School of Economics and Business Administration
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6310
    Faculty address: 
    Narva mnt 4-A315, 51009, Tartu
  • Institute of Psychology
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5902
    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 2, 50409, Tartu
  • School of Law
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5390
    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 20, 50409, Tartu
  • Institute of Social Studies
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5188
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36, 51003, Tartu
  • Narva College
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 740 1900
    Faculty address: 
    Raekoja plats 2, 20307, Narva
  • Pärnu College
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 445 0520
    Faculty address: 
    Ringi 35, 80012, Pärnu
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty phone: 
(+372) 737 5326
Faculty address: 
Ravila 19, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine
    Faculty phone: 
    +(372) 737 4210
    Faculty address: 
    Biomeedikum, Ravila 19, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Pharmacy
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5286
    Faculty address: 
    Nooruse 1, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Dentistry
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 731 9856
    Faculty address: 
    Raekoja plats 6, 51003, Tartu
  • Institute of Clinical Medicine
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5323
    Faculty address: 
    L. Puusepa 8, 51014, Tartu, Eesti
  • Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 4190
    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5360
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 5-205, 51014, Tartu
Faculty of Science and Technology
Faculty phone: 
(+372) 737 5820
Faculty address: 
Vanemuise 46-208, 51014, Tartu
  • Institute of Computer Science
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5445
    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 2, 50409, Tartu
  • Estonian Marine Institute
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 671 8902
    Faculty address: 
    Mäealuse 14, 12618, Tallinn
  • Institute of Physics
    Faculty address: 
    W. Ostwaldi Str 1, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Chemistry
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5261
    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 14a, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5860
    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 2, 50409, Tartu
  • Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5011
    Faculty address: 
    Riia 23, 23b-134, 51010, Tartu
  • Institute of Technology
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 4800
    Faculty address: 
    Nooruse 1, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5835
    Faculty address: 
    Vanemuise 46, 51014, Tartu
Institutions
Support Units
  • Administrative Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5606
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51014, Tartu
  • University Office in Tallinn
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6600
    Faculty address: 
    Teatri väljak 3, 10143 Tallinn
  • Estates Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5137
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51014, Tartu
  • Finance Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5125
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 4, 51014, Tartu
  • Information Technology Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6000, arvutiabi: 737 5500
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51014, Tartu
  • Internal Audit Office
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 17-114, 51014, Tartu
  • Marketing and Communication Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5687
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, ruum 210, 50090, Tartu
  • Office of Academic Affairs
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6215
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090, Tartu
  • Office of Research and Development
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6192
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, III korrus, 51003, Tartu
  • Human Resources Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5145
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, rooms 302 and 304, 50090, Tartu
  • Rector's Strategy Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5600
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 51014, Tartu
  • Student Council
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5400
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18b, 51014, Tartu
Other Units
  • University of Tartu Academic Sports Club
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5371
    Faculty address: 
    Ujula 4, 51008 Tartu
  • Tartu Student Village
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 740 9959
    Faculty address: 
    Narva mnt 25, 51013 Tartu
  • Tartu Students’ Club
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 730 2400
    Faculty address: 
    Kalevi 24, 51010 Tartu
  • University of Tartu Press
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5945
    Faculty address: 
    W. Struve 1, 50091 Tartu
  • Tartu University Hospital
    Faculty address: 
    L. Puusepa 1a, 50406 Tartu
  • University of Tartu Foundation
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5852
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu
  • View all other units

Contacts of UT units

Faculty of Arts and Humanities
Faculty phone: 
(+372) 737 5341
Faculty address: 
Jakobi 2 - 116-121, 51014, Tartu
  • Institute of History and Archaeology
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5651
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51003, Tartu
  • Institute of Estonian and General Linguistics
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5221
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51014, Tartu
  • Institute of Philosophy and Semiotics
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5314
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, III, rooms 309-352, 51014, Tartu
  • Institute of Cultural Research and Arts
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5223
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 16, 51003, Tartu
  • School of Theology and Religious Studies
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5301
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18-310, 50090, Tartu
  • College of Foreign Languages and Cultures
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, 51003, Tartu
  • Viljandi Culture Academy
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 435 5232
    Faculty address: 
    Posti 1, 71004, Viljandi
Faculty of Social Sciences
Faculty phone: 
(+372) 737 5957
Faculty address: 
Lossi 36, 51003, Tartu
  • Institute of Education
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6440
    Faculty address: 
    Salme 1a, room 29, 50103, Tartu
  • Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies
  • School of Economics and Business Administration
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6310
    Faculty address: 
    Narva mnt 4-A315, 51009, Tartu
  • Institute of Psychology
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5902
    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 2, 50409, Tartu
  • School of Law
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5390
    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 20, 50409, Tartu
  • Institute of Social Studies
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5188
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36, 51003, Tartu
  • Narva College
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 740 1900
    Faculty address: 
    Raekoja plats 2, 20307, Narva
  • Pärnu College
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 445 0520
    Faculty address: 
    Ringi 35, 80012, Pärnu
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty phone: 
(+372) 737 5326
Faculty address: 
Ravila 19, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine
    Faculty phone: 
    +(372) 737 4210
    Faculty address: 
    Biomeedikum, Ravila 19, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Pharmacy
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5286
    Faculty address: 
    Nooruse 1, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Dentistry
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 731 9856
    Faculty address: 
    Raekoja plats 6, 51003, Tartu
  • Institute of Clinical Medicine
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5323
    Faculty address: 
    L. Puusepa 8, 51014, Tartu, Eesti
  • Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 4190
    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5360
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 5-205, 51014, Tartu
Faculty of Science and Technology
Faculty phone: 
(+372) 737 5820
Faculty address: 
Vanemuise 46-208, 51014, Tartu
  • Institute of Computer Science
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5445
    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 2, 50409, Tartu
  • Estonian Marine Institute
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 671 8902
    Faculty address: 
    Mäealuse 14, 12618, Tallinn
  • Institute of Physics
    Faculty address: 
    W. Ostwaldi Str 1, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Chemistry
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5261
    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 14a, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5860
    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 2, 50409, Tartu
  • Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5011
    Faculty address: 
    Riia 23, 23b-134, 51010, Tartu
  • Institute of Technology
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 4800
    Faculty address: 
    Nooruse 1, 50411, Tartu
  • Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5835
    Faculty address: 
    Vanemuise 46, 51014, Tartu
Institutions
Support Units
  • Administrative Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5606
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51014, Tartu
  • University Office in Tallinn
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6600
    Faculty address: 
    Teatri väljak 3, 10143 Tallinn
  • Estates Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5137
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51014, Tartu
  • Finance Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5125
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 4, 51014, Tartu
  • Information Technology Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6000, arvutiabi: 737 5500
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51014, Tartu
  • Internal Audit Office
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 17-114, 51014, Tartu
  • Marketing and Communication Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5687
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, ruum 210, 50090, Tartu
  • Office of Academic Affairs
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6215
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090, Tartu
  • Office of Research and Development
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 6192
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, III korrus, 51003, Tartu
  • Human Resources Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5145
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, rooms 302 and 304, 50090, Tartu
  • Rector's Strategy Office
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5600
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 51014, Tartu
  • Student Council
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5400
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18b, 51014, Tartu
Other Units
  • University of Tartu Academic Sports Club
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5371
    Faculty address: 
    Ujula 4, 51008 Tartu
  • Tartu Student Village
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 740 9959
    Faculty address: 
    Narva mnt 25, 51013 Tartu
  • Tartu Students’ Club
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 730 2400
    Faculty address: 
    Kalevi 24, 51010 Tartu
  • University of Tartu Press
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5945
    Faculty address: 
    W. Struve 1, 50091 Tartu
  • Tartu University Hospital
    Faculty address: 
    L. Puusepa 1a, 50406 Tartu
  • University of Tartu Foundation
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5852
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu
  • View all other units

Spring semester 2016/2017

Ethics and Philosophy of Sex (3 ECTS)
Francesco Orsi
This course examines philosophical questions related to sex. We will begin by analyzing the nature of sex, discussing a range of theories of sex including sex as essentially connected to reproduction, sex as a language or expression of love, and "plain sex" theories that emphasise sexual pleasure and desire. Then, we will consider more closely the ethics of sexual behaviour, discussing issues such as perversion, objectification, sexual consent, prostitution, pornography. We will examine some of the most relevant ethico-philosophical traditions for these issues: natural law theory, Kantianism, and feminism.

All levels, no prerequisite subjects.


Critical Thinking (3 ECTS)
Mats Volberg
The aim of the course is to acquaint the students with the philosophical foundations of critical thinking, most common types of faulty argumentation and to give them the skills to apply both at analyzing and re-constructing different kinds of arguments.


Ideal and Non-Ideal Theory in Political Philosophy(3 ECTS)
Mats Volberg
In this course we will be reading and discussing Gerald Gaus' new book The Tyranny of the Ideal: Justice in a Diverse Society.


Readings in Buddhist Philosophy I (3 ECTS)
Vivian Bohl
The aim is to familiarize students with the main concepts and issues in Buddhist philosophy and with some schools of Buddhist thought. Texts that introduce Buddhist philosophy will be read and analyzed.

BA students (from 2nd year); MA, PhD students


Nietzsche, Foucault and Genealogy (3 ECTS)
Jaanus Sooväli
The aim of the course is to provide students with knowledge of what is genealogy, more specifically, how Friedrich Nietzsche and Michel Foucault conceived it and what they thought it can achieve. In the course of reading Nietzsche's and Foucault's key texts on genealogy, the following topics will be focused on: (1) The cultural and philosophical context Nietzsche's and Foucault's genealogies grow out of; (2) The philosophical problems and questions pertaining to both conceptions of genealogy; (3) The (philosophical and cultural) aims and use of both genealogies; (4) The place of both (conceptions of) genealogies in the wider context of the 20th century philosophy.


Social and Ethical Aspects of Engineering (4 ECTS)
Ave Mets, Endla Lõhkivi, Edit Talpsepp and Jaana Eigi
Social and value dimensions of technologies. Overview of ethical theories. Environmental ethics and engineering. Research ethics and professional ethics.Moral relativism and cultural context of engineering.


Research Ethics and Integrity (3 ECTS)
Margit Sutrop
The course consists of three modules: 1. Introductory lecture+seminar; 2. Joint workshop for the graduate students from Tartu and Konstanz universities; 3. Participation in the international conference on Research Integrity. The introductory lecture and seminar provide an ethical-philosophical background for understanding the topic of research ethics and integrity. In the joint workshop guidance will be provided on how to successfully pass the ethics review of the European Commission, how to deal with the ethical issues of one's research project. The international conference will provide a good overview of the international discussion on research integrity and scientific misconduct. A new Estonian Code of Conduct for Researchers will be discussed in the workshop of the conference.

PhD students


World Picture (3 ECTS)
Ave Mets
Nature as spirited (animism, polytheism); monotheism and science; laws of nature as material or transcendent, abstract, from materialism to abstraction; human and nature, human and world; mathematics and technology in understanding the world; deep ecology.

All interested students, suggested (not obligatory) some knowledge of philosophy of science. Elective course for philosophy BA students.


Pragmatist Realism: Philosophy, History, and Science (3 ECTS)
Ave Mets
In his intriguing book "Is Water H2O. Evidence, Realism and Pluralism" (2012), Hasok Chang, in fascinating and informative ways, brings together the philosophy, history and practice of science. As he expresses it: the by now commonplace fact that water is H2O "was a very difficult thing for scientists to learn". Through his attentive and critical look at the history of this learning process, Chang brings forth the intricacies and contingencies of science and of our understanding of the world as scientifically explained. Thereby he incites a more pluralistic approach to and revision of our contemporary scientific practices. On the basis of this book, Hasok Chang will give the workshop "Pragmatist Realism: Philosophy, History, and Science" on 6-9 March 2017.

MA, PhD, and last year BA students


Philosophical Methodology (3 ECTS)
Bruno Mölder
The course gives an overview of different philosophical methods and asks if there is something that is distinctive about them when compared to scientific methods. First, we will consider philosophical naturalism and its claim that philosophy should be continuous with natural sciences. Second, we will explore various methods that have taken by some to be distinctive of philosophy, such as conceptual analysis and thought experiments. Third, we will consider the evidential status of philosophical intuitions in the light of some recent criticism by experimental philosophers.

Philosophy MA students


Introduction to Epistemology (3 ECTS)
Alexander Stewart Davies
Epistemology is the study of knowledge and related concepts. This course aims to introduce students to the philosophical questions that arise when trying to understand knowledge and related concepts. For example, what is knowledge? Should we always form our beliefs in accordance with the evidence? Or can moral and pragmatic factors legitimately influence our beliefs? What is the structure of justification? How do we get knowledge from what seem to be good sources of knowledge: such as perception, testimony and induction even though those sources are obviously susceptible to all kinds problems e.g. illusion, deceit, and unobserved cases? The aim of this course is not to provide students with the answers to these questions. It is rather to get students to understand why these questions are not easy to answer and thus to position students so that they are able to think critically for themselves about these topics. This course is twinned with Epistemology II: a series of seminars that follow a day or so after each week's lecture. In these seminars, students will have the chance to practice doing epistemology by engaging in supervised discussions of the topics raised in the lectures. It is strongly recommended that students who attend Epistemology I also attend Epistemology II.

BA students, MA students


Introduction to Epistemology II (3 ECTS)
Alexander Stewart Davies
The aim of this course is to develop the capacity of students to analyse and assess the key texts which form the basis of the lectures for Introduction to Epistemology I. This course builds on the knowledge students gain of contemporary epistemology from Introduction to Epistemology. The aim is to develop student's capacity to critically engage with, rather than merely learn facts about, contemporary epistemology. Generally, this course must be taken simultaneously with Introduction to Epistemology I. Exceptions may be made--but you must discuss this with the course lecturer.

BA students, MA students who have already passed / are taking Introduction to Epistemology (FLFI.04.013)


Philosophical Perspectives on the Naturalistic Explanation of Religious Belief (3 ECTS)
Uku Tooming and Riin Kõiv
The purpose of this course is to explore naturalist and materialist approaches, both historical and contemporary, to explaining religious belief and practice, and their broader implications for reductive understanding of cultural phenomena. Special focus will be on the questions of whether, and in which ways, the materialist understanding of human nature can ground cultural critique. The course will address the following topics: materialist and psychologistic explanations of religious belief in the tradition of European Enlightenment thought (e.g. French materialism, Ludwig Feuerbach), contemporary cognitive studies of religion and explanations of religion in evolutionary psychology (e.g. Dan Sperber and the epidemiology of religious representations, Pascal Boyer, Paul Bloom).

Everybody interested, preferably MA students


Meaning, Truth, and Context (6 ECTS)
Alexander Stewart Davies
An attractive view of the relationship between linguistic meaning and the things we say to one another when we use linguistic expressions with given linguistic meanings is that the linguistic meaning determines what we say when we use the relevant expressions. But in recent years, this view has come under pressure from a variety of linguistic data and philosophical arguments. In this course, we will assess the cogency of these arguments and the implications of this data.

Undergraduate and graduate philosophy students who have passed elementary logic and/or formal semantics courses, and an introductory course in philosophy of language.


The Sun and the Stranger: Seminar on Julia Kristeva (6 ECTS)
Tiina Ann Kirss
This seminar course will focus on key topics, conceptual frameworks and metaphorics in selected writings by semiotician and cultural theorist Julia Kristeva. Though her work is often classified as feminist and poststructuralist, Kristeva`s thinking uses but eludes both of these classifications. More precisely, she draws extensively and richly on the discourse of psychoanalysis to address what she refers to as "new maladies of the soul, " and the characteristics of modern collectivities that inhibit or destroy subjectivity. In the seminar we will read closely Kristeva`s writings on exile, love, melancholy ("black sun"), and estrangement, as well as consider her innovative uses of form to provoke her reader into the precariousness of humanist philosophical inquiry.

Students in MA Program in Philosophy, international students, interested Ph.D students in the humanities or arts. Prerequisite: knowledge of English sufficient to undertake the reading of complex texts and to discuss them in a seminar setting.


Topics in Estonian Culture: Colonization, Trauma, Postcommunism (6 ECTS)
Tiina Ann Kirss
This course will investigate, in lecture/discussion format, three clusters of events and processes in the cultural history of Estonia in the context of interdisciplinary thought and cultural theories. Specific knowledge of cultural history will serve as a testing ground for explanatory frameworks drawn from postcolonial thought, trauma theory, and memory studies. (1) The first cluster will examine "founding moments" of the 13th century colonization of the Baltic region, and the subsequent christianization using the chronicle as a principal source. As a long-term process, colonization led to the enslavement of the Estonian peasant on manorial estates owned by Baltic-Germans, and to oppressive structures of physical as well as epistemic violence. The paradox of the emergence of written Estonian is one facet of christianization, alongside the "civilizing project" of establishing basic schools. Topics to be covered include insurgency, peasant social differentiation, and Enlightenment-fueled emancipatory discourses among Baltic-German intellectuals. (2) The second cluster will examine the loss of Estonian nationhood at the beginning of World War II, and the cultural memory of the three occupations (Soviet, German, Soviet) of the war. Models of trauma, tragedy, and postmemory will be discussed, using written life stories of Estonians as source material. (3) The third cluster will discuss the post-Soviet period (1991-) and questions will be raised concerning the pertinence and validity of a post-colonial model for these cultural shifts and dynamics. Filling in "blank spaces" of history with banished narratives, and the representation of Soviet life in life stories are questions for memory studies, and will be broached through a plurality of approaches (recuperative, "multidirectional", cultural trauma). All readings are in English translation.

All students interested in the subject.